Baden's report draws on research conducted by Oxfam between 2010 and 2012. The research establishes that women get significant economic benefits from group membership. They had better access to credit, more and better marketing opportunities, and higher revenues compared to other women who are not members in collective action groups. Furthermore, both women and men farmers benefit from participation in mixed-sex groups. Group participation plays an important role in ensuring that women have access to productive assets.
Women small-scale farmers face a number of gender-based constraints, including restricted access to land and credit. Collective action is a mechanism that can increase women's engagement in markets; however, Baden notes that it is unclear how women are precisely benefiting from membership in groups. Key findings suggest that women group members are usually older, married, and from wealthier households. There are significant economic benefits for women who join collective action groups.
Climate change is an unprecedented threat to the food security of hundreds
of millions of people. Climate change affects agriculture and food security, and likewise, agriculture and natural resource management affect the climate system. These complex and dynamic relationships are also shaped by economic policies, political conflict and other factors such as the spread of infectious diseases.
This review provides a gender analysis of poverty, nutrition, food security, and analysis on the performance of agricultural activities by gender in Nigeria. Ajani argues that although women contribute significantly to food production, processing, and marketing, decision-making and access to capital assets. Women need access to appropriate technology for food production. Gender issues also affect women's access to extension services. Women farmers face serious time constraints and sometimes cannot participate in extension.
Abeka et al. outline four case studies on how climate change affects women farmers and how women develop coping mechanisms in response to climate change. Studies from India, Peru, and Kenya draw on interviews and focus groups with women. In India, researchers found that women are the first members of the household to deal with natural disasters or extreme weather conditions such as flooding and landslides. Women deal with these effects by attempting to choose varietals that will survive in the face of extreme weather.