Meinzen-Dick's interview accompanies the findings of IFPRI's GAAP publication. Meinzen-Dick argues that reducing the gender gap in agricultural development initiatives can have significant positive effects on development outcomes. Looking specifically at asset gaps can give programs an understanding of gender inequality and also the roots and causes of that inequality. Programs should examine whether they are improving or diminishing women's and men's access to assets.
Mehra and Rojas argue that despite growing interest and discussion on agricultural growth there has been a lack of commitment to women farmers. Rural women are responsible for half of the world's food, but are generally left out of policy decisions and implementation in agricultural development. Mehra and Rojas review women's current roles in agricultural production, processing, and marketing, and argue that the development assistance must support women's involvement in the agricultural value chain.
Mayoux and Mackie argue that value chain development has failed to incorporate gender analyses. With the aim of encouraging researchers and implementers to integrate gender analyses into value chain development, they outline the basic tenets of gender and value chain analysis, including concepts and frameworks, gender concepts and definitions, guidelines for gender-inclusive language, and participatory research on value chains. Finally, they include information on how to write gender-equitable proposals.
This overview article traces the background and current gender issues related to agricultural extension and advisory services, exploring the significance of gender relations for planning, operating, and monitoring extension. There are a number of different ways to define farmers, including household heads, landowners, and farm income earners. The way that extension services define farmers affects women, who may not fall neatly into one category. Manfre et al.
Ley argues that women play a central role in both agricultural production and provision of nutritious foods. She highlights the steps that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have adopted to integrate gender issues and nutrition into agricultural development. These include focusing on women's empowerment, including behavior change components, and using multi-sectoral approaches.
This video outlines why it is important to include a gendered analysis in climate change initiatives, noting that women are more vulnerable to the effects of climate change, and that climate change initiatives that do not incorporate women will ultimately fail.
Howard explains how women predominate in plant biodiversity management as housewives, plant gatherers, home gardeners, herbalists, seed custodians and informal plant breeders. Howard argues that most plant use, management and conservation occurs within the domestic realm, and because the principal values of plant genetic resources are localized and non-monetary, they are largely invisible to outsiders and are easily undervalued.
Guendel posits that women farmers grow subsistence crops not because of personal preference, but because they cannot get access to the resources necessary for cash crop production. Guendel discusses the blurred division of labor and general complexities surrounding the issue of ‰ÛÏmen's‰Û crops and ‰ÛÏwomen's‰Û crops, noting that frequently, the gender division of labor changes in response to changing economic opportunities.
Gammage describes the Greater Access to Trade Expansion (GATE) project's methodology for gender in value chain analysis. The document makes an argument for a mixed methods gender and pro-poor value chain analysis, including estimate of costs and returns, value added, labor market segmentation, and the analysis of power and the terms of exchange throughout the chain. Gammage discusses the value chain from an economic perspective arguing that it can be used to illuminate opportunities to improve men and women's employment throughout the chain.
Gammage, S. 2009. Gender and Pro-Poor Value Chain Analysis: Insights from the Gate Project Methodoogy and Case Studies. Prepared under the Greater Access to Trade Expansion project of USAID's Office of Women in Development IQC. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
The Food and Agriculture Organization's report on the gender gap in agriculture examines land access, livestock, labor, education, information and extension, financial services, and technology. It also details trends in undernourishment, food production, consumption and trade during food crises, and trends in agricultural prices. With respect to closing the gender gap, the report recommends that projects bundle interventions, so that several constraints are addressed at the same time. It also notes that gender aware agricultural policy decisions are of critical importance.