The World Bank's Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook argues that agriculture is central to the livelihoods of the rural poor, and that women play an integral role in agricultural development. HIV and AIDS, migration, and globalization and liberalization have all affected women, according to the World Bank. The World Bank argues that acknowledging gender issues in agriculture is critical, because ignoring gender inequalities results in projects that might negatively affect women. The Sourcebook attempts to help researchers and practitioners address gender inequalities.
Warren's article notes that while gender research methodologies have valuable applications for promoting gender equality, they must be combined with "clear political and theoretical underpinnings and specific goals and objectives." Warren discusses the challenges that occur when attempting to use frameworks, and examines the more theoretical questions of what occurs when the politics of gender and development are limited to the search for a technical solution.
Using data from an extensive four-year study, Udry et al. (1995) use a regression analysis to explore the variation in yields between men's plots and women's plots. Udry finds that women farmers are as efficient as men; however, women lack equal access to inputs and labor. This is particularly true of manure, which is exclusively allocated to men's plots. Subsequently, yields from women's plots are consistently lower than those from men's plots. Udry et al.
The Handbook provides a comprehensive methodology for addressing gender issues at all nodes of agricultural value chains. It is founded on a gender analysis approach, and outlines the Gender Dimensions Framework, which analyzes gender relations in observed practices and patterns of participation, patterns of access to assets, social beliefs and perceptions, and laws, policies and institutions as the organizing framework for collecting and analyzing data on gender relations in agricultural value chains.
Rubin, D., K. Nichols Barrett, and C. Manfre. 2009. Promoting Gender Equitable Opportunities in Agricultural Value Chains: A Handbook. Prepared under the Greater Access to Trade Expansion project of USAID's Office of Women in Development IQC. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Overholt et al. combine a number of technical papers and case studies on different issues affecting women in development programs. These include issues of productivity in agricultural systems, technology transfer, small scale enterprise and women, family planning, and credit. The case studies come from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
O'Sullivan et al. focus on the gender gap in productivity, providing more information on gender-based constraints to production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on information from survey data, they identify ten priority areas that will help to decrease the gender gap. These include: 1. strengthening women's land rights, 2. improving women's access to hired labor, 3. enhancing women's use of tools and equipment to reduce labor, 4. providing community-based child care centers, 5. encouraging women farmers to use more high-quality fertilizer, 6. increasing women's use of improved seeds, 7.
This book demonstrates the importance of livestock as an asset for women using evidence from Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Women's ownership of livestock influences household food security through its effects on household dietary diversity and food adequacy. The book also addresses issues related to resources, information, and financial services that would enable women to participate in livestock production. Finally, the book supplies recommendations on how to mainstream women into livestock production.
This short brief summarizes the arguments of the longer USAID/GATE handbook on integrating gender into agricultural value chains. It outlines gender-based constraints in land, labor, inputs, and capital for agricultural development. Women's land ownership rates lag behind men's, in almost all regions globally. Women have unequal bargaining power that distorts intra-household labor and resource allocations. Women also have less access to inputs; they do not have access to as much labor, improved seeds, fertilizers, machinery, or improved technologies as men.
This resource provides a comprehensive review of the evidence supporting the need to address gender issues in agricultural research. Meinzen-Dick et al. review the evidence on how gender issues in agriculture affect both the process and outcomes of research. They argue that integrating gender into agricultural research and development also supports greater understanding of the role of foods in contributing o nutritious diets for all household members.