In order to respond to the variability of local conditions and production objectives, farmers in southern Mali generally grow several varieties of maize, representing different characteristics. Their selection criteria have been reported to be quite different from those of breeders. Moreover, women's criteria for processing and consumption have often been neglected. The complexity and variability of farmers' production strategies and objectives make it difficult to grasp farmers' selection criteria, for both gender.
Ragasa, C., Berhane, G., Tadesse, F., & Taffesse, A. S. (2013). Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 19(5), 437-468. doi:10.1080/1389224X.2013.817343
In order to respond to the variability of local conditions and production objectives, farmers in southern Mali generally grow several varieties of maize, representing different characteristics. Their selection criteria have been reported to be quite different from those of breeders. Moreover, women's criteria for processing and consumption have often been neglected. The complexity and variability of farmer' production strategies and objective make it difficult to grasp farmer's selection criteria, for both gender.
Defoer, T., Kamara, A., & Groote, H. D. (1997). Gender and variety selection: Farmers assessment of local maize varieties in Southern Mali. African Crop Science Journal, 5(1). doi:10.4314/acsj.v5i1.27872
Population pressures, currency devaluations, and fertilizer subsidy removal programs in many African countries have caused renewed concern about soil degradation and loss of soil fertility. Advances in food production are further constrained by the invisibility factor, i.e., women do most of the food farming in sub-Saharan Africa, but have little access to the means necessary to significantly increase output and yields.
Gladwin, C. H., Buhr, K. L., Goldman, A., Hiebsch, C., Hildebrand, P. E., Kidder, G., ... & Williams, D. (1997). Gender and soil fertility in Africa. Replenishing soil fertility in Africa, (replenishingsoi), 219-236.
This paper analyses the differences of access to productive resources within the household of southern Mali. Information was collected through separate group discussions with older men, younger men, and women from six villages. This information was complemented with a formal survey of 96 households in 12 villages. It was found that the essential differences between individuals related to access are gender, age, marriage and being the head of the household.
Agricultural planning and development are crucial to human survival, but they usually proceed without any consideration of the importance of gender issues at the production level. Although women have long been prime movers in agriculture, their contribution to the world's food supply has been largely ignored, and consequently their stake in development has been undermined.
This gender analysis study for maize post-harvest management was carried out in Kenya under the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) through its Effective Grain Storage Project Phase-II (EGSP-II). Maize is Kenya’s main staple food taken to be synonymous with household and national food security. It is therefore the country’s most frequently produced and marketed crop. About 75 percent of the maize in the country is produced by small-scale farmers.
This paper assessed the relative economic efficiency and output supply and input demand responses of women farmers in western Kenya. The results showed that women are as technically and allocatively efficient as men. However, neither men nor women have absolute allocative efficiency. Women farmers are equally responsive to price incentives in terms of output supply and input demand. While education and extension contact have significant effects on overall maize supply and input demand, only extension contact has significant effects among women farmers.
Alene, A. D., Manyong, V. M., Omanya, G. O., Mignouna, H. D., Bokanga, M., & Odhiambo, G. D. (2008). Economic Efficiency and Supply Response of Women as Farm Managers: Comparative Evidence from Western Kenya. World Development, 36(7), 1247-1260. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.06.015
Understanding how and why domestic groups alter their function and form has long been a theme within anthropology. Numerous accounts have detailed the processes that drive household transformations and their underlying mechanisms. Mostly, these studies describe how domestic groups fission and fuse between extended and nuclear forms. In recent years, scholars have emphasized that these transformations should be understood within larger contexts of social and environmental change.
West, C. T. (2009), Domestic Transitions, Desiccation, Agricultural Intensification, and Livelihood Diversification among Rural Households on the Central Plateau, Burkina Faso. American Anthropologist, 111: 275–288. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1433.2009.01132.x
With major socio-economic changes in the Middle East and North Africa spurring men's exit from agriculture, women now represent over 60 per cent of the agricultural workforce in several countries. Drawing on original field research, this paper analyses the emergence of female agricultural labour contractors and female wage labour groups in north-west Syria and compares the outcomes for the contractors' and labourers' empowerment with regard to four dimensions of power or agency: power within, power to, power over and power with.
Abdelali-Martini, M., and Dey de Pryck, J. (2015) Does the Feminisation of Agricultural Labour Empower Women? Insights from Female Labour Contractors and Workers in Northwest Syria. J. Int. Dev., 27: 898–916. doi: 10.1002/jid.3007.