The Longwe framework outlines five levels of equality, including welfare, access, conscientisation, mobilization, and control, and assesses these levels as positive, neutral, or negative. The framework suggests that these levels are ascending, although non-linear. The model also links women's inequality to structural inequalities and oppression. The Longwe framework is beneficial for organizations or researchers who may need to explicitly address gender inequality.
Longwe, S. 1991. ‰ÛÏWomen's Empowerment Framework, Gender Awareness: The Missing Element in the Third World Development Project‰Û in Changing Perspectives Writings on Gender and Development. C. Wallace and C. March (eds) Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
Ley argues that women play a central role in both agricultural production and provision of nutritious foods. She highlights the steps that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have adopted to integrate gender issues and nutrition into agricultural development. These include focusing on women's empowerment, including behavior change components, and using multi-sectoral approaches.
Kauck et al. conduct a scoping study, noting that successful gender mainstreaming in the CGIAR system has relied on several elements. These include a shared understanding that is embedded in institution-wide gender mainstreaming policies and strategies; it also includes committed leadership, sufficient funding, sustained efforts to build staff capacity, and accountability to gender issues. The study notes that many of those elements have been missing from many of the CGIAR centers, despite vocal support for gender across the CGIAR system.
Kabeer states that women's empowerment is ‰ÛÏabout the process by which those who have been denied the ability to make strategic life choices acquire such an ability.‰Û Kabeer notes that empowerment hinges on three inter-related dimensions, which include resources, agency, and achievements. Kabeer argues that these three dimensions cannot be separated out when trying to determine the meaning of an indicator; it therefore is difficult to measure empowerment. This issue becomes even more complicated when issues of choice come into play.
Theory of change is nothing new, according to this review. Yet it can provide a very powerful learning lens, which helps organisations ask themselves and others simple but important questions about what they are doing and why. It enables them to develop a clear framework for monitoring and evaluation; more common understanding, clarity and effectiveness in their approach; and strengthen their partnerships, organisation development and communication.
Gender sensitive budgeting, according to IOM, integrates a gender perspective and tracks how budgets respond to gender equality targets. This report explains that budgets are not neutral; the way that project funds are allocated has a different impact on men and women. Gender sensitive budgeting is subsequently important because it details how men and women are affected by different expenditure patterns. This report outlines the five steps of gender sensitive budgeting. These include 1. Describing the situation of women and girls and men and boys. 2.
Howard explains how women predominate in plant biodiversity management as housewives, plant gatherers, home gardeners, herbalists, seed custodians and informal plant breeders. Howard argues that most plant use, management and conservation occurs within the domestic realm, and because the principal values of plant genetic resources are localized and non-monetary, they are largely invisible to outsiders and are easily undervalued.
Working in partnership has become central in efforts to address complex environmental, socio-economic, and technological problems. The terms partner or partnership appear more than 100 times in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and more than 200 times in the version of the CGIAR's new Strategy and Results Framework presented at the recent Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development. It is promoted as an effective means to mobilise the resources and capacities needed to generate knowledge, stimulate innovation and influence decision-making.
Haraway examines the relationship between scientific rhetoric, feminist research, and the idea of objectivity. Haraway notes that there are two polar opinions regarding objectivity: constructionists argue that science is a construction of power, and is therefore contestable. Alternatively, feminist objectivists can be too objective in their attempts to understand and contextualize science. Haraway argues that ‰ÛÏsituated knowledges‰Û require that the object of the knowledge be characterized as an actor or an agent.
Guendel posits that women farmers grow subsistence crops not because of personal preference, but because they cannot get access to the resources necessary for cash crop production. Guendel discusses the blurred division of labor and general complexities surrounding the issue of ‰ÛÏmen's‰Û crops and ‰ÛÏwomen's‰Û crops, noting that frequently, the gender division of labor changes in response to changing economic opportunities.