ACDI/VOCA's toolkit includes information on preparing a scope of work, conducting a desk review, and writing a work plan. The fieldwork section identifies different methodologies, including quantitative surveys, focus groups, informant interviews, and observation. It also provides guidelines for using an interpreter, note-taking and recording, and ethical considerations. The data analysis and findings section outlines how to analyze data and develop recommendations. The toolkit also includes a number of activities for collecting and analyzing data.
Mosedale examines notions of empowerment, particularly for women and the poor, arguing that in order for women to be "empowered," they must first be considered "disempowered" or disadvantaged. If this is the case, then Mosedale suggests that discussions of power are critical to notions of empowerment and how we define empowerment. Mosedale also examines frameworks for assessing empowerment, and proposes her own. She states that identifying constraints to action, looking at power relationships, and identifying how women's agency changed constraints to action.
Moon and Blackman provide a guide to help natural scientists understand the basis of social science in order to interpret social research outcomes. They outline ontology, epistemology, and philosophical perspective in social research. They also discuss the way that the researcher defines their philosophical orientation and how this determines their actions.
This resource provides a comprehensive review of the evidence supporting the need to address gender issues in agricultural research. Meinzen-Dick et al. review the evidence on how gender issues in agriculture affect both the process and outcomes of research. They argue that integrating gender into agricultural research and development also supports greater understanding of the role of foods in contributing o nutritious diets for all household members.
Meinzen-Dick's interview accompanies the findings of IFPRI's GAAP publication. Meinzen-Dick argues that reducing the gender gap in agricultural development initiatives can have significant positive effects on development outcomes. Looking specifically at asset gaps can give programs an understanding of gender inequality and also the roots and causes of that inequality. Programs should examine whether they are improving or diminishing women's and men's access to assets.
Mehra and Rojas argue that despite growing interest and discussion on agricultural growth there has been a lack of commitment to women farmers. Rural women are responsible for half of the world's food, but are generally left out of policy decisions and implementation in agricultural development. Mehra and Rojas review women's current roles in agricultural production, processing, and marketing, and argue that the development assistance must support women's involvement in the agricultural value chain.
Mayoux and Mackie argue that value chain development has failed to incorporate gender analyses. With the aim of encouraging researchers and implementers to integrate gender analyses into value chain development, they outline the basic tenets of gender and value chain analysis, including concepts and frameworks, gender concepts and definitions, guidelines for gender-inclusive language, and participatory research on value chains. Finally, they include information on how to write gender-equitable proposals.
The underlying framework for the activities in this manual is the ‰ÛÏempowerment road journey,‰Û which looks at life goals and personal development, as well as livelihoods. The framework highlights the relationships between these elements at an individual level. It suggests that the only way forward for women's poverty reduction is to address the gender inequalities that constrain not only women, but also men and children. GALS encourages people to move towards the goals that they themselves identify in order to help remove these constraints.
March et al. describe the many frameworks that can be used in development work to analyze gender relationships, e.g., the Harvard Analytical framework, the Moser framework, Gender Analysis Matrices, the Longwe (women's empowerment framework), capacities and vulnerabilities analysis framework, and the social relations approach. The Harvard Framework was designed to demonstrate that the economic case for allocating resources to women. It maps men and women's work and resources in a community and shows the differences between the two.
This overview article traces the background and current gender issues related to agricultural extension and advisory services, exploring the significance of gender relations for planning, operating, and monitoring extension. There are a number of different ways to define farmers, including household heads, landowners, and farm income earners. The way that extension services define farmers affects women, who may not fall neatly into one category. Manfre et al.