Gender

Agri-Gender Toolkit

The gender-agri toolkit includes gender and agriculture statistics on a number of countries. It also includes the surveys and data items that the FAO used to get these statistics, so that researchers can examine these points, use them in their own research, and base research questions off of them.

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Toolkit

Gender, agricultural commercialization, and collective action in Kenya

Fischer and Matin argue that women are disadvantaged in agriculture due to gender disparities in access to productive resources. They argue that while farmer collective action can improve smallholder access to markets and technology, men's membership in farmer groups can also have a negative marginal effect on dietary quality. However, Fischer and Matin argue that the negative gender implications of farmer groups can be reduced or avoided when women form groups that are exclusively controlled by women.

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Journal Article

If Women Hold up Half the Sky, How Much of the World's Food Do They Produce?

Doss's paper examines the data on how much food women produce. She examines available data on labor inputs and agricultural outputs to determine women's specific contribution to the global food supply. Doss shows that it is impossible to know how much food women produce, because women do not produce separately from men and it is difficult to disaggregate data on women and men's production. Doss concludes that additional data is necessary to continue to examine this question empirically.

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Working Paper

Men's Crops? Women's Crops? The Gender Patterns of Cropping in Ghana

Doss problematizes the idea of ‰ÛÏmen's crops‰Û and ‰ÛÏwomen's crops,‰Û examining the actual practices behind men's and women's farming practices in Ghana. She investigates the cultural expression of crops as belonging to men or women, are common in the literature on West African agriculture, but difficult to demonstrate in practice, as crops cannot easily be defined as exclusively men's or exclusively women's, since both men's and women's labor is used, if for different tasks and allocation of benefits from crops sales is often unlinked to crop production.

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Working Paper

How does gender affect the adoption of agricultural innovations?

Evidence from Ghana suggests that gender-linked differences in the adoption of modern maize varieties and chemical fertilizer result from gender-linked differences in access to complementary inputs. This finding has important policy implications, because it suggests that ensuring more widespread and equitable adoption of improved technologies may not require changes in the research system, but rather introduction of measures that ensure better access for women to complementary inputs, especially land, labor, and extension services.

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Journal Article

Gender and agricultural value chains: a review of current knowledge and practice and their policy.

[From the paper]: This paper introduces value chain analysis and development as tools for addressing gender inequities in markets. We describe how factors such as access to assets, gendered education differentials and the nature and value of economic activities affect the way in which men and women participate and gain in value chains, distinguishing among household, institutional and chain levels of analysis. Current empirical evidence for the role of upgrading in value chains in impacting gender inequities in markets is weakened by our as yet imperfect understanding of the issues.

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Working Paper

The feminisation of poverty and the feminisation of anti-poverty programmes: Room for revision?

Chant examines the construct of the "feminization of poverty" and notes that it has helped to give gender an "increasingly prominent place within international discourses on poverty and poverty reduction." However, the feminization of anti-poverty programs has done little to help women deal with poverty. Chant examines this quandary through four questions. First, Chant examines common conceptions of the feminization of poverty. Second, she asks what purposes have been served by the feminization of poverty, and the use of that particular term.

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Journal Article

Women's Role in Economic Development.

Boserup's pioneering work examines women's roles in the economy, and particularly agriculture, in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. She looks at the change in these roles in the context of increasing modernization. Boserup argues that, for the most part, women are hindered by the shift from traditional to modern agricultural systems. Boserup also examines and how men and women divide work within the household and looks at different concepts of productive and reproductive work.

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Book

Gender, Growth and Poverty Reduction: Special Program of Assistance for Africa, 1998. World Bank Technical Paper No. 428.

Blackden and Bhanu examine the relationship between gender inequality, growth, and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. They argue that markets and household economies are independent, and that men and women have structural roles within the economy. The technical paper concludes that gender-based constraints, namely gender-based asset inequality, results in inefficiency. Improving women's access to inputs will increase growth, efficiency, and welfare.

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Technical Paper

Gender, flexibility and global value chains

Barrientos examines how adding a gendered analysis to the analysis of global value chains might be developed at a "conceptual level". The study draws on pre-existing empirical evidence to examine how flexible employment influences the way that value chains function. Barrientos establishes that women's flexible employment at specific links in the value chain helps to facilitate flexible sourcing and distribution of high quality goods.

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Journal Article