Morley raises key concerns on gender mainstreaming, some of which include the way in which women are constructed as a unified analytical category, and how gender equality is frequently reduced to issues of representation. Morley's article also critically interrogates how gender mainstreaming initiatives can be undermined by sexist practices such as sexual harassment.
Moon and Blackman provide a guide to help natural scientists understand the basis of social science in order to interpret social research outcomes. They outline ontology, epistemology, and philosophical perspective in social research. They also discuss the way that the researcher defines their philosophical orientation and how this determines their actions.
The underlying framework for the activities in this manual is the ‰ÛÏempowerment road journey,‰Û which looks at life goals and personal development, as well as livelihoods. The framework highlights the relationships between these elements at an individual level. It suggests that the only way forward for women's poverty reduction is to address the gender inequalities that constrain not only women, but also men and children. GALS encourages people to move towards the goals that they themselves identify in order to help remove these constraints.
The Longwe framework outlines five levels of equality, including welfare, access, conscientisation, mobilization, and control, and assesses these levels as positive, neutral, or negative. The framework suggests that these levels are ascending, although non-linear. The model also links women's inequality to structural inequalities and oppression. The Longwe framework is beneficial for organizations or researchers who may need to explicitly address gender inequality.
Longwe, S. 1991. ‰ÛÏWomen's Empowerment Framework, Gender Awareness: The Missing Element in the Third World Development Project‰Û in Changing Perspectives Writings on Gender and Development. C. Wallace and C. March (eds) Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
Kabeer states that women's empowerment is ‰ÛÏabout the process by which those who have been denied the ability to make strategic life choices acquire such an ability.‰Û Kabeer notes that empowerment hinges on three inter-related dimensions, which include resources, agency, and achievements. Kabeer argues that these three dimensions cannot be separated out when trying to determine the meaning of an indicator; it therefore is difficult to measure empowerment. This issue becomes even more complicated when issues of choice come into play.
This brief tells the story of Peace, who lives in Uganda and was a subject of a WEAI analysis conducted in Uganda. Based on WEAI domains (Production, Time, Leadership, Income, and Resources) Peace is empowered, because she has ‰ÛÏadequate achievements‰Û in indicators on leisure, workload, input in productive decisions, autonomy in production, ownership of assets, purchase, sale or transfer of assets, access to and decisions on credit, control over use of income, and group membership and public speaking.
The WEAI is a composite measurement tool that identifies women's control over decisions about agricultural production, access to and decision making power over productive resources, control over use of income, leadership in the community, and time use. This report outlines the structure of the WEAI by explaining the Gender Parity Index, which reflects the percentage of women who are as empowered as the men in their households. It also details the five domains of empowerment outlined above.
Gates states that the development field must take women's empowerment and gender inequities more seriously. She mentions the linkages between women's empowerment and development outcomes, and cites instances where organizations such as the Grameen Foundation and CARE fine-tuned their projects' approaches to gender and saw increases in nutrition, productivity, and income.
This is a technical paper that examines how the WEAI was developed and explains how it has recently been used in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Uganda, with the intention that researchers who want to use the WEAI in their own research might understand the piloting and development of the survey questionnaires and qualitative case studies and how to use the WEAI in the context of their own research. The WEAI measures women's the empowerment, agency, and inclusion in agriculture, and can be used as a general tool for analyzing women's empowerment, or more specifically in agricultural contexts.