There is growing recognition of the importance of African leafy vegetables for achieving healthy diets, particularly amongst low-income households. In Tanzania, cassava leaves are an important vegetable, yet little is known about how their markets are organized and who benefits from participation and how. This study examines the structure of and gender dynamics in the cassava leaves value chain in Mkuranga District, Tanzania. Data was collected through structured and semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and observations.
The Infographic provides basic information on women's roles in farming. It includes data and visual displays on the female share of the agricultural labor force, distribution of male and female employment by sector, rural working hours and conditions, employment in high value agro-industries and gender gaps in agriculture. Infographic visuals and graphs can be extracted and embedded for research purposes.
Upgrading sweetpotato value chains is constrained by its bulkiness, its short shelf life and it being predominantly seen as a woman's and poor person's crop. Commercialization efforts require increased involvement of men and young people, without jeopardizing benefits accruing to women. The International Potato Center (CIP) is supporting value chain development of orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) using the Participatory Market Chain Approach (PMCA) in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
Mayanja, S.; McEwan, M. (2015). "Getting the equation right: engendering sweetpotato value chains in East Africa." Potato and sweetpotato in Africa: transforming the value chains for food and nutrition security. 541-547.
The E-learning course website provides links to all of the World Bank Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook's e-learning Modules. These are all beneficial and might be very valid for pre-learning or pre-course materials, particularly the first two modules.
The World Bank's Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook argues that agriculture is central to the livelihoods of the rural poor, and that women play an integral role in agricultural development. HIV and AIDS, migration, and globalization and liberalization have all affected women, according to the World Bank. The World Bank argues that acknowledging gender issues in agriculture is critical, because ignoring gender inequalities results in projects that might negatively affect women. The Sourcebook attempts to help researchers and practitioners address gender inequalities.
Warren's article notes that while gender research methodologies have valuable applications for promoting gender equality, they must be combined with "clear political and theoretical underpinnings and specific goals and objectives." Warren discusses the challenges that occur when attempting to use frameworks, and examines the more theoretical questions of what occurs when the politics of gender and development are limited to the search for a technical solution.
Using data from an extensive four-year study, Udry et al. (1995) use a regression analysis to explore the variation in yields between men's plots and women's plots. Udry finds that women farmers are as efficient as men; however, women lack equal access to inputs and labor. This is particularly true of manure, which is exclusively allocated to men's plots. Subsequently, yields from women's plots are consistently lower than those from men's plots. Udry et al.
The Handbook provides a comprehensive methodology for addressing gender issues at all nodes of agricultural value chains. It is founded on a gender analysis approach, and outlines the Gender Dimensions Framework, which analyzes gender relations in observed practices and patterns of participation, patterns of access to assets, social beliefs and perceptions, and laws, policies and institutions as the organizing framework for collecting and analyzing data on gender relations in agricultural value chains.
Rubin, D., K. Nichols Barrett, and C. Manfre. 2009. Promoting Gender Equitable Opportunities in Agricultural Value Chains: A Handbook. Prepared under the Greater Access to Trade Expansion project of USAID's Office of Women in Development IQC. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Overholt et al. combine a number of technical papers and case studies on different issues affecting women in development programs. These include issues of productivity in agricultural systems, technology transfer, small scale enterprise and women, family planning, and credit. The case studies come from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
O'Sullivan et al. focus on the gender gap in productivity, providing more information on gender-based constraints to production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on information from survey data, they identify ten priority areas that will help to decrease the gender gap. These include: 1. strengthening women's land rights, 2. improving women's access to hired labor, 3. enhancing women's use of tools and equipment to reduce labor, 4. providing community-based child care centers, 5. encouraging women farmers to use more high-quality fertilizer, 6. increasing women's use of improved seeds, 7.