Women small-scale farmers face a number of gender-based constraints, including restricted access to land and credit. Collective action is a mechanism that can increase women's engagement in markets; however, Baden notes that it is unclear how women are precisely benefiting from membership in groups. Key findings suggest that women group members are usually older, married, and from wealthier households. There are significant economic benefits for women who join collective action groups. Furthermore, collective action improves women's access to credit, market information, and training and improved technology. Women group members have more control over several household decisions than non-members. However, income gains from membership do not lead to increased empowerment, and changes in group members' empowerment are likely to be ‰ÛÏincremental‰Û rather than ‰ÛÏtransformative.‰Û The report also lists a number of key factors that impact the potential for women's participation in collective action. These include policies and legal frameworks, degree and nature of women's existing participation in the sub-sector, local traditions, and household relations.
Women's Collective Action Unlocking the Potential of Agricultural Markets.
Baden, S. 2013.Women's Collective Action Unlocking the Potential of Agricultural Markets. Oxford: Oxfam Great Britain.