Razavi and Miller examine the trends in the way that development discourses have historically discussed and conceptualized gender issues. They explain the beginning of the women in development (WID) movement and its roots in the demonstration of positive relationships between investment in women and economic growth. They also examine the shift from WID frameworks to gender and development (GAD) frameworks. Finally, they discuss the tensions between these two frameworks, noting that there are differences in the way that the connectedness of husbands and wives is treated. There are also differences in the way that the approaches think of bottom down or top up programming.
From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse, UN Fourth World Conference on Women, Occasional Paper No. 1.
Razavi, S. and Miller, C. 1995. From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse, UN Fourth World Conference on Women, Occasional Paper No. 1. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD).