Value chain analysis with a Gender Focus: on Food Crop, Cash Crop, and Livestock

Gender relates to socially assigned roles and behaviors attributable to men and women, it is the
socially constructed meaning of biological sex differences. The construction and reproduction of
gender takes place at the individual and at the societal level (Council of Europe 1998). Gender roles
are roles that are played by both women and men and which are not determined by biological factors
but by the socioeconomic and cultural environment or situation (ICA-ILO 2001, Mollel and Mtenga
2000). It is culture specific and therefore dynamic in time and space. Policies and structures have
been found to play a very important role in shaping the condition of life and often institutionalize the
social structures (Council of Europe 1998, Alesina et al 2012). Structure refers to the political,
cultural, economic and social constructions and norms that shape agriculture and women’s daily
lives; they can serve as vehicles for women’s advancement, or constrain women (Davis 2012).

Niang, A., Becker, M., Ewert, F., Dieng, I., Gaiser, T., Tanaka, A., . . . Saito, K. (2017). Variability and determinants of yields in rice production systems of West Africa. Field Crops Research, 207, 1-12. doi:
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