Kabeer states that women's empowerment is ‰ÛÏabout the process by which those who have been denied the ability to make strategic life choices acquire such an ability.‰Û Kabeer notes that empowerment hinges on three inter-related dimensions, which include resources, agency, and achievements. Kabeer argues that these three dimensions cannot be separated out when trying to determine the meaning of an indicator; it therefore is difficult to measure empowerment. This issue becomes even more complicated when issues of choice come into play. This article is fundamental for understanding empowerment and encouraging researchers to think about how they define, contextualize, and measure empowerment.
Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women, Empowerment, Development and Change
Kabeer, N. 1999. ‰ÛÏResources, Agency, Achievements‰Ûø: Reflections on the Measurement of Women's Empowerment.‰Û Development and Change 30(May): 435‰ÛÒ464.