This overview article traces the background and current gender issues related to agricultural extension and advisory services, exploring the significance of gender relations for planning, operating, and monitoring extension. There are a number of different ways to define farmers, including household heads, landowners, and farm income earners. The way that extension services define farmers affects women, who may not fall neatly into one category. Manfre et al. also argue that extension services must account for women's time and mobility constraints, adapt to different education and literacy levels, and ensure that extension providers have the human and financial capacity to reach both men and women farmers. Finally, Manfre et al. outline principles for gender-equitable extension and advisory services; they argue that extension and advisory services should increase the proportion of women extension officers, give all officers the knowledge to address men and women farmers equitably, adapt to gender-responsive techniques to local contexts, deliver cross-sectoral programming, collect sex-disaggregated data, and evaluate the impact of extension services on reducing gender disparities in productivity.
Reducing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services.
Manfre, C., D. Rubin, A. Allen, G. Summerfield, K. Colverson, M. Akeredolu. 2013. Reducing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services. Washington, D.C.: MEAS.