Manyire and Apekey examine the gendered constraints for both women farmers and women agricultural researchers in African universities. Manyire and Apekey note that African agricultural research and development (ARD) does not adequately account for the informal structural set-ups of African smallholder agriculture; because smallholder subsistence farming is governed by complex norms, and because these norms are formed in a gendered society, ARD fails to account for gendered norms altogether. Furthermore, ARD focuses more on production, and less on the institutions in which gender operates. Furthermore, ARD institutions have inherited ‰ÛÏcultures of social exclusion‰Û and unfavorable exclusion of smallholder farmers and female farmers in particular.
Mainstreaming Gender Equality in African Agricultural Research and Development: A Study of Constraints and Opportunities.
Manyire, H., and A.D. Apekey. 2013. Mainstreaming Gender Equality in African Agricultural Research and Development: A Study of Constraints and Opportunities. Accra: FARA.