March et al. describe the many frameworks that can be used in development work to analyze gender relationships, e.g., the Harvard Analytical framework, the Moser framework, Gender Analysis Matrices, the Longwe (women's empowerment framework), capacities and vulnerabilities analysis framework, and the social relations approach. The Harvard Framework was designed to demonstrate that the economic case for allocating resources to women. It maps men and women's work and resources in a community and shows the differences between the two. The People-oriented Planning Framework is generally used in refugee situations to ensure that resources are being distributed equitably. The Moser framework attempts to establish gender planning ‰ÛÏin its own right‰Û and characterizes planning as ‰ÛÏdebate.‰Û It examines women's role as productive, reproductive, and community workers, establishes women's practical and strategic needs, and uses a WID/GAD policy matrix. Gender analysis matrices aim to determine different impacts that development initiatives have on men and women. The capacities and vulnerabilities framework was designed for humanitarian response situations. The Longwe framework, or women's empowerment framework intends to help planners question what women's empowerment means in practice, and to what extent a development intervention facilitates women's empowerment. The authors explain how to use each of these frameworks. They review the advantages and disadvantage of each. Definitions of gender concepts are also provided.
A Guide to Gender-Analysis Frameworks.
March, C., I, Smyth, and M. Mukhopadhyay. 1999. A Guide to Gender-Analysis Frameworks. Cowley, Oxfam: Oxfam Great Britain.