We derive input demand functions for fertiliser and hybrid seed, testing for the combined and separate effects of income from non-farm sources and agricultural wage labour among smallholder maize farmers in Kenya. More income from off-farm sources, and specifically non-farm sources, competes with maize intensification, particularly in more productive areas where use rates are higher. In less productive areas, where households rely more on off-farm income and input use in maize is extremely low, agricultural wage labour reduces the likelihood that fertiliser is applied, but when used, has a positive effect on quantities purchased of both seed and fertiliser.
Off Farm Employment and Input Intensification among Smallholder Maize Farmers in Kenya
Mathenge, M. K., Smale, M., & Tschirley, D. (2015). Off?farm Employment and Input Intensification among Smallholder Maize Farmers in Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66(2), 519-536.