The Longwe framework outlines five levels of equality, including welfare, access, conscientisation, mobilization, and control, and assesses these levels as positive, neutral, or negative. The framework suggests that these levels are ascending, although non-linear. The model also links women's inequality to structural inequalities and oppression. The Longwe framework is beneficial for organizations or researchers who may need to explicitly address gender inequality.
Empowerment Framework, Gender Awareness: The Missing Element in the Third World Development Project
Longwe, S. 1991. ‰ÛÏWomen's Empowerment Framework, Gender Awareness: The Missing Element in the Third World Development Project‰Û in Changing Perspectives Writings on Gender and Development. C. Wallace and C. March (eds) Oxford, UK: Oxfam.