Human fertility is likely to affect agricultural production through its effect on the supply of agricultural labor. Using the fact that in traditional, patriarchal societies sons are often preferred to daughters, we isolated exogenous variation in the number of children born to a mother and related it to agricultural labor supply and production outcomes in Uganda - a country that combines a dominant agricultural sector with one of the highest fertility rates in the world. We found that fertility has a sizable negative effect on household labor allocation to subsistence agriculture.
Background: In spite of women making up the biggest workforce in food production, processing and preparation in Africa, little is known about how women access production resources, especially concerning sweet potato enterprise. Based on the sex of the household head, we compared male and female sweet potato farmers' access to agricultural information, credit and extension in Uganda. Differences in sweet potato production techniques, contribution of sweet potato to household food security or cash income, off-farm income sources and membership to farmers' group were also determined.
Factors Influencing Diversity of Farmers' Varieties of Sweet Potato in Uganda: Implications for Conservation. There is increasing concern that agricultural intensification is causing loss of crop biodiversity due to displacement of traditional farmers' varieties by a small number of improved cultivars. Using ethnobotanical surveys, we assessed the implication of adoption of new sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on the maintenance of farmers' varieties in Uganda. Other factors influencing varietal diversity were also assessed.
Zawedde, Barbara M.; Harris, Craig; Alajo, Agnes; Hancock, Jim; Grumet, Rebecca (2014) Factors Influencing Diversity of Farmers' Varieties of Sweet Potato in Uganda: Implications for Conservation. ECONOMIC BOTANY. 337-349.
We examine the role of gender in adoption and diffusion of orange sweet potato, a biofortified staple food crop being promoted as a strategy to increase dietary intakes of vitamin A among young children and adult women in Uganda. As an agricultural intervention with nutrition objectives, intrahousehold gender dynamics regarding decisions about crop choice and child feeding practices may play a role in adoption decisions. Also, most households access sweet potato vines through informal exchange, suggesting again that gender dimensions of networks may be important to diffusion of the crop.
Gilligan, D. O.; Kumar, N.; McNiven, S.; Meenakshi, J. V.; Quisumbing, A. (2014). Bargaining power and biofortification: the role of gender in adoption of orange sweet potato in Uganda. IFPRI - Discussion Papers, V20, Issue 1.
Recognizing the gender gap that exists in the adoption rates of improved agricultural technology is crucial in increasing agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. A gender-disaggregated framework is used to examine key variables that guide the adoption decision of improved agricultural technologies by gender and household headship. Drawing on household data collected in two districts in Uganda and constructing a probability model, key variables will be analyzed as to their significance in the adoption decision for improved banana cultivars.
Razavi and Miller examine the trends in the way that development discourses have historically discussed and conceptualized gender issues. They explain the beginning of the women in development (WID) movement and its roots in the demonstration of positive relationships between investment in women and economic growth. They also examine the shift from WID frameworks to gender and development (GAD) frameworks. Finally, they discuss the tensions between these two frameworks, noting that there are differences in the way that the connectedness of husbands and wives is treated.
Razavi, S. and Miller, C. 1995. From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse, UN Fourth World Conference on Women, Occasional Paper No. 1. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD).
Quisumbing explains how the relationship between gender and assets can affect people's ability to engage in and benefit from agriculture interventions. Quisumbing discusses two of the GAAP portfolio projects: The HarvestPlus Reaching End Users Project and the Helen Keller International Enhanced Homestead Food Production Program
This brief tells the story of Peace, who lives in Uganda and was a subject of a WEAI analysis conducted in Uganda. Based on WEAI domains (Production, Time, Leadership, Income, and Resources) Peace is empowered, because she has ‰ÛÏadequate achievements‰Û in indicators on leisure, workload, input in productive decisions, autonomy in production, ownership of assets, purchase, sale or transfer of assets, access to and decisions on credit, control over use of income, and group membership and public speaking.
The WEAI is a composite measurement tool that identifies women's control over decisions about agricultural production, access to and decision making power over productive resources, control over use of income, leadership in the community, and time use. This report outlines the structure of the WEAI by explaining the Gender Parity Index, which reflects the percentage of women who are as empowered as the men in their households. It also details the five domains of empowerment outlined above.
This is a technical paper that examines how the WEAI was developed and explains how it has recently been used in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Uganda, with the intention that researchers who want to use the WEAI in their own research might understand the piloting and development of the survey questionnaires and qualitative case studies and how to use the WEAI in the context of their own research. The WEAI measures women's the empowerment, agency, and inclusion in agriculture, and can be used as a general tool for analyzing women's empowerment, or more specifically in agricultural contexts.