Chaudhury, M.; Kristjanson, P.; Kyagazze, F.; Naab, J. B.; Neelormi, S. (2012). Participatory gender-sensitive approaches for addressing key climate change-related research issues: evidence from Bangladesh, Ghana, and Uganda. CCAFS Working Papervi + 19 pp.vi + 19 pp.
Razavi and Miller examine the trends in the way that development discourses have historically discussed and conceptualized gender issues. They explain the beginning of the women in development (WID) movement and its roots in the demonstration of positive relationships between investment in women and economic growth. They also examine the shift from WID frameworks to gender and development (GAD) frameworks. Finally, they discuss the tensions between these two frameworks, noting that there are differences in the way that the connectedness of husbands and wives is treated.
Razavi, S. and Miller, C. 1995. From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse, UN Fourth World Conference on Women, Occasional Paper No. 1. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD).
The WEAI is a composite measurement tool that identifies women's control over decisions about agricultural production, access to and decision making power over productive resources, control over use of income, leadership in the community, and time use. This report outlines the structure of the WEAI by explaining the Gender Parity Index, which reflects the percentage of women who are as empowered as the men in their households. It also details the five domains of empowerment outlined above.
Gammage describes the Greater Access to Trade Expansion (GATE) project's methodology for gender in value chain analysis. The document makes an argument for a mixed methods gender and pro-poor value chain analysis, including estimate of costs and returns, value added, labor market segmentation, and the analysis of power and the terms of exchange throughout the chain. Gammage discusses the value chain from an economic perspective arguing that it can be used to illuminate opportunities to improve men and women's employment throughout the chain.
Gammage, S. 2009. Gender and Pro-Poor Value Chain Analysis: Insights from the Gate Project Methodoogy and Case Studies. Prepared under the Greater Access to Trade Expansion project of USAID's Office of Women in Development IQC. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
This is a technical paper that examines how the WEAI was developed and explains how it has recently been used in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Uganda, with the intention that researchers who want to use the WEAI in their own research might understand the piloting and development of the survey questionnaires and qualitative case studies and how to use the WEAI in the context of their own research. The WEAI measures women's the empowerment, agency, and inclusion in agriculture, and can be used as a general tool for analyzing women's empowerment, or more specifically in agricultural contexts.
Abeka et al. outline four case studies on how climate change affects women farmers and how women develop coping mechanisms in response to climate change. Studies from India, Peru, and Kenya draw on interviews and focus groups with women. In India, researchers found that women are the first members of the household to deal with natural disasters or extreme weather conditions such as flooding and landslides. Women deal with these effects by attempting to choose varietals that will survive in the face of extreme weather.