Africa

Gender Surprises in Food Production, Processing, and Marketing with Emphasis on Cassava in Africa.

Nweke and Enete's report examines farm-level information from 282 villages in six major cassava producing areas in Africa. The data provides evidence of the division of responsibilities on the farm between men and women, but also suggests that these responsibilities are changing as market access improves and technologies become more available. These changes cause men to assume more responsibilities in cassava marketing and processing. The report does not examine the consequences of these shifts.

Geographic Focus: 
Media Type: 
Working Paper

Applying Science and Technology to Enhance Cassava, Dairy, and Maize Value Chains: Cassava Value Chain Overview

This paper highlights many of the key constraints in the cassava value chain, particularly in Nigeria. It argues that there are a number of market inefficiencies and potential technological innovations that must be addressed to improve productivity and chain efficiency. These poor coordination among value chain actors and lack of standards and certification. Production is hampered by low availability of inputs. Fresh cassava value chains face transport bottlenecks.

Geographic Focus: 

Gender Differentials in Farm Productivity: Implications for Household Efficiency and Agricultural Policy

Using data from an extensive four-year study, Udry et al. (1995) use a regression analysis to explore the variation in yields between men's plots and women's plots. Udry finds that women farmers are as efficient as men; however, women lack equal access to inputs and labor. This is particularly true of manure, which is exclusively allocated to men's plots. Subsequently, yields from women's plots are consistently lower than those from men's plots. Udry et al.

Geographic Focus: 
Media Type: 
Journal Article

Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book.

Overholt et al. combine a number of technical papers and case studies on different issues affecting women in development programs. These include issues of productivity in agricultural systems, technology transfer, small scale enterprise and women, family planning, and credit. The case studies come from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

Geographic Focus: 
Media Type: 
Case study,Book

Leveling the Field: Improving Opportunities for Women Farmers in Africa.

O'Sullivan et al. focus on the gender gap in productivity, providing more information on gender-based constraints to production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on information from survey data, they identify ten priority areas that will help to decrease the gender gap. These include: 1. strengthening women's land rights, 2. improving women's access to hired labor, 3. enhancing women's use of tools and equipment to reduce labor, 4. providing community-based child care centers, 5. encouraging women farmers to use more high-quality fertilizer, 6. increasing women's use of improved seeds, 7.

Media Type: 
Policy Brief

Mainstreaming Gender Equality in African Agricultural Research and Development: A Study of Constraints and Opportunities.

Manyire and Apekey examine the gendered constraints for both women farmers and women agricultural researchers in African universities. Manyire and Apekey note that African agricultural research and development (ARD) does not adequately account for the informal structural set-ups of African smallholder agriculture; because smallholder subsistence farming is governed by complex norms, and because these norms are formed in a gendered society, ARD fails to account for gendered norms altogether. Furthermore, ARD focuses more on production, and less on the institutions in which gender operates.

Topics: 
Geographic Focus: 
Media Type: 
Case study

Tools for the Field: Methodologies Handbook for Gender Analysis in Agriculture. West Hartford

This book outlines a number of different case studies from Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The cases demonstrate a range of techniques, including making gender sensitive interview guides, insuring participatory rural appraisal methods with gender dimensions, initial diagnosis, research planning, on farm experimentation and trial assessment, ongoing diagnosis and special studies, extension, training, and institutionalization.

Geographic Focus: 
Media Type: 
Book

If Women Hold up Half the Sky, How Much of the World's Food Do They Produce?

Doss's paper examines the data on how much food women produce. She examines available data on labor inputs and agricultural outputs to determine women's specific contribution to the global food supply. Doss shows that it is impossible to know how much food women produce, because women do not produce separately from men and it is difficult to disaggregate data on women and men's production. Doss concludes that additional data is necessary to continue to examine this question empirically.

Geographic Focus: 
Media Type: 
Working Paper

Collective Action, Gender Relations and Social Inclusion in African Agricultural Markets. Policy Brief 64.

Baden's report draws on research conducted by Oxfam between 2010 and 2012. The research establishes that women get significant economic benefits from group membership. They had better access to credit, more and better marketing opportunities, and higher revenues compared to other women who are not members in collective action groups. Furthermore, both women and men farmers benefit from participation in mixed-sex groups. Group participation plays an important role in ensuring that women have access to productive assets.

Media Type: 
Policy Brief